University of Maryland Proposal

Source: UNIV OF MARYLAND submitted to 
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Accession No.
Grant No.
Project No.
Proposal No.
Multistate No.
Program Code
Project Start Date
Aug 14, 2013
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2014
Grant Year
Project Director
Recipient Organization
Performing Department
Cooperative Extension Service
Non Technical Summary
Aronia is a new specialty crop fruit, which has recently garnered interest by a number of groups including growers (farmers and other land owners), producers of foods and juices, pharmaceutical companies, amongst others. Aronia is a pome-fruit bearing shrub in the Rose family which has been shown to possess very high concentrations of anthocyanins in the fruit. These polyphenolic phytochemicals have been implicated to benefit and promote cardio vascular, gastrointestinal, urological, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal health. This makes the fruit a very marketable commodity which could bring profit to those invested in culture, processing and sales of Aronia products. Presently, there is much to understand about Aronia production especially with the effects cultural management on the health of the plant and quality of the fruit. This study proposes to investigate the effects of fertility, and other cultural practices including plant spacing on plant health and fruit quality, including phytochemical content. The results of this research program will be disseminated through an already nationally recognized University of Maryland Extension program, extension publications and peer-reviewed journal manuscripts. This grant may serve to assist investigators in applying for a USDA/NIFA SCRI Planning Grant for 2014, if available, a 2014 North East SARE Grant .
Animal Health Component
Research Effort Categories


Knowledge Area (KA) Subject of Investigation (SOI) Field of Science (FOS) Percent
701 1199 2000 100%
Goals / Objectives
Objectives – Using the presently established orchard with the two cultivars Aronia mitschurinii 'Viking' and Aronia mitschurinii 'Nero' the following research objectives will be met. Examine the continued effect of organic-based nitrogen rates on plant nutritional status (leaf samples), fruit yield, brix, juice pH and anthocyanin/polyphenol content and character. Determine differences, if any, between use of conventional nitrogen and organic nitrogen on nutritional status (leaf samples), fruit yield, brix, juice pH and anthocyanin/polyphenol content and character. Determine the effect of plant spacing on nutritional status (leaf samples), fruit yield, brix, juice pH and anthocyanin/polyphenol content and character. These information obtained from these objectives will provide a basis for publications, extension programs and initial data for submission of larger grant proposals.
Project Methods
Research Plan – The Orchard at Wye Research and Education Center An active Aronia research orchard, established in May of 2006 will give this research immediate results towards proposed goals. The orchard contains three sections, 1, 2 and 3. Each section contains four rows (A, B, C and D) approximately 23 meters in length with approximately 3 meters of turf between rows. Only Organic Materials Review Institute fertilizers and pesticides have been utilized in sections 1 and 2. Section 1 consists of 100 Aronia plants in four rows of 25 plants at approximately one meter spacing between plants, and containing the cultivars Aronia 'Viking' and Aronia 'Nero'. Twenty-four Aronia 'Viking' plants were planted as two year-old bare root plants in groups of six, distributed randomly within the four rows. Seventy-four Aronia 'Nero' plants, less than 12 months old, were planted with the Aronia 'Viking' plants so that the two cultivars are distributed in randomized groups within the rows. Each plant is considered an experimental unit. Treatment groups of 4 to 6 plants were randomly assigned within the rows and plants on the outside of the treatment group have been considered guard plants from which no data are utilized. Initial fertility consisted of 6 grams of nitrogen (N) per plant the first year of planting. Presently an ongoing organic N rate treatment is being studied, but to date, only yield weight and soluble sugar content has been measured at harvest. Since 2009, the plants have been consistently treated with 4 N levels of 0, 3, 7 and 14 grams per plant per year (for Nero) and 2 N levels of 0 and 7 grams per plant per year (for Viking), randomly applied within the treatment groups of each row. This experimental design allows for a Randomized Complete Block Design with the potential to nest treatments within the rows, which serve as blocks. Section 1 serves as our original orchard and as the main source of information on yield, soluble sugar content and pest monitoring for the Extension program. Section 2 contains 80 Aronia 'Viking” plants, planted in June of 2010 as 12-month old liner plants at a spacing of 1.2 meters between plants. Initial fertility at planting was 7 grams of N per plant. In 2011 and 2012, N fertility was split into 14 grams per plant per year on rows A and C and 3 grams N per plant per year in rows B and D. No viable data has been taken from Section 2 as of yet. However, in this forth growing season, plant will yield their second harvest for data collection. Section 3 was planted in 2011 with 44 Aronia 'Viking' plants at spacing of 2.1 meters between plants with the intent of quantifying differences in fruit quality as related to canopy sunlight interception and in contrast to Sections 1 and 2. No initial fertilization was given to Section 3 plants at planting nor since then. However, this year, Section 3 plants will be fertilized by either the conventional chemical fertilizer (Scotts® with IBDU and sulfur coated urea with 50% WIN activity) or with OMRI certified Boost® Natural and rock phosphate. Potassium will also be added to the conventional N source to balance K amongst treatments. Rows will be divided into fertility rates similar to Section 2 with either 3 or 14 g of N per plant. Also 0.3 g or 1.4 g of P and 1.6 g or 7.4 g K per plant will be applied to maintain the NPK ratio. Each row will be split in half. Plants in one randomly chosen half-row will receive conventional chemical fertilizer and the other half will receive the OMRI certified organic fertilizers. N rates will remain the same within the row. Plants in Sections 1 and 2 have been fertilized in March of each year and plants in Section 3 will be fertilized in March of this year and thereafter. Leaf Samples For Objectives 1, 2 and 3, all leaves will be harvested in the same manner for all Sections. Leaf samples will be taken 1 month before harvest to determine nutritional status of plants based on fertility and spacing treatments. A total of approximately 15 grams of leaves (first fully expanded leaves from different locations on the plant) will be harvested from each experimental unit and dried at 60 oC for two days. Samples will be milled and then analyzed for nutrient status at the University of Delaware Soils Laboratory, Newark, DE. Harvest For Objectives 1, 2 and 3, all fruit will be harvested in the same manner for all Sections. Fruit will be harvested in mid to late August. Fruit fresh weight will be recorded from each experimental unit (each plant). Guard-plant fruit will not be used for analyses. Approximately 100 grams of fruit will be randomly taken as a grab from each experimental unit after weighing. Brix will be measured on ten fruit from this grab and values averaged. The rest of the grab will be frozen in individual packages and sent to the laboratory of Dr.Victoria Volkis at University of Maryland Eastern Shore for chemical analyses. Detailed methods for chemical analyses are outlined below. Sample Preparation Two types of samples from Aronia will be prepared from each experimental unit: Freeze Dried Fruit Samples and Juice Preparation Anthocyanin Determination Sample Preparations and Analyses Calculations of Anthocyanin Pigment Calculation of anthocyanin pigment concentration (APC), expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents, will be done as follows: APC (cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents, mg/L) = A* MW * 103/ ? x 1 where A = (A520nm – A700nm)pH 1.0 – (A520nm – A700nm)pH 4.5; MW (molecular weight) = 449.2 g/mol for cyanidin-3-glucoside (cyd-3-glu); DF = dilution factor established above (100X); l = pathlength in cm; ? = 26 900 molar extinction coefficient, in L & mol-1 & cm-1, for cyd-3-glu; and 10×3 = factor for conversion from g to mg. Results will be reported as monomeric anthocyanin, expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents in mg/L. Total Polyphenols Analyses Total Polyphenols Sample Preparation Preparation of Gallic Acid stock solution: 0.55291g of gallic acid monohydrate was dissolved in in 10mL of ethanol and diluted to volume of 100mL with water. Preparation of Sodium Carbonate solution: 233.962g of sodium carbonate monohydrate was dissolved in 800mL of water, brought to a boil, and left to settle for 24hrs. Then, the solution was filtered and water was added to bring the volume to 1L. Prior to sample measurements, a calibration curve will be created. To prepare a calibration curve, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 mL of the gallic acid stock solution was added into 100 mL volumetric flasks and diluted to volume with water. These solutions then had the phenol concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, and 500 mg/L gallic acid. Parameter data from fruit assays will be analyzed according to the experimental procedures of which are RCBD's. Inference from all results will rely on statistical analyses performed as RCBD with ANOVA by SAS Proc Mixed (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C.). Block effect will be determined and used if significant in explaining variation. If treatment interaction is not significant, main effects will be reported and discussed. However, if treatment interactions are significant, simple effects (the effect of a variable at a specific level of another variable) will be reported and discussed. Data showing unequal variation will be transformed and reanalyzed. Significant results will tell us how cultural management parameters as treatments were effective in increasing phytochemcial production or yield or optimally, both. Inferences from this information will be made and will be disseminated by the methods perviously described in Products.

Jams, Jellies, and Preserves

From University of California:

Jams, Jellies, and Preserves

Understanding the science behind jams, jellies and preserves is important to achieving a stable, safe, and appropriately firm product. This section has links to regulations pertaining to the production of this category of foods as well as to articles on the science behind making a high-quality jam or jelly.

Title 21 PART 150–Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products – FDA
The is the U.S. standard of identity for fruit butters, jellies, preserves, and related products. Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 150.

Jams and Jellies – Imports CPG Section 550.500 – FDA

The Science & Technology of Making Preserves (p. 4)
Manufacture of Low Sugar/No Sugar Jams and Jellies (p. 1)

Venture Newsletter. Cornell University New York State Agriculture Experiment Station.

Manufacturing Jams, Jellies and Preserves or view as a PDF (11 KB)
North Carolina State University Department of Food Science.

Fruit Jellies – Food Processing for Entrepreneurs Series – (PDF 631 KB)
University of Nebraska Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources

CPG Sec. 550.475 Jellies, Nonstandardized


Findings of fact and standards of identity for fruit jellies were published in the Federal Register of September 5, 1940. There are, however, jellies made from juices of fruits other than those named in the standard of identity. Jellied products resembling jelly are also made from extractions and juices of products other than fruits. The Food and Drug Administration has not objected to manufacture and sale of these nonstandardized or non-fruit jellies provided they are informatively labeled and do not purport to be standardized articles.

The record of hearing and findings of fact which form the basis for the standard of identity also form the basis for and support of requirements with respect to nonstandardized jellies. The findings most readily applicable to nonstandardized jellies are as follows:

Finding 1

A jelly is the semi-solid food of gelatinous consistency obtained by concentrating, by the application of heat, a mixture of fruit juice or diluted or concentrated fruit juice and saccharine ingredients, in which the fruit juice is not less than 45 parts by weight and the saccharine ingredients no more than 55 parts by weight.

Finding 31

One of the factors on the basis of which a product is identified as a jelly is its consistency.

Finding 34

Pectin and acid, substances naturally present in all fruits used for making jelly, are essential to the jellying of jelly.

Finding 39

Acid deficiency of a fruit juice ingredient is supplied by adding a suitable quantity of a vinegar, or lemon juice, or lime juice, or citric acid, or lactic acid, or malic acid, or tartaric acid, or any combination of two or more of these.

Finding 40

By adding abnormally large quantities of pectin or acid, or both, a substantial part of the normal fruit juice content of jelly can be replaced by water and excessive saccharine ingredients; such a product through its consistency and appearance, purports to be jelly and such use of pectin and acid is regarded as deceptive.

Finding 41

When fruit juice content and the degree of concentration of jelly are fixed at proper limits, any inducement for adding pectin or acid or both, in quantities greater than are required to supply the natural deficiency of those substances is eliminated.

Finding 43

The name of a jelly in which a single fruit juice ingredient is used is “jelly” preceded or followed by the name of the fruit from which the fruit juice was extracted.


Nonstandardized fruit jellies should be made with 45 parts of fruit to 55 parts of sugar and concentrated to 65 percent soluble solids with the exception of black currant jelly.

Due to a high pectin content, black currants cannot be used in the 45/55 ratio to produce satisfactory preserves, jams or jelly. Instead, a fruit/sugar ratio of 27 parts black currants to 55 parts sugar is ordinarily used.

Nonstandardized non-fruit jellies should have a soluble solids content of 65 percent and organoleptic characteristics suggested by the name. Although mixtures of standardized and nonstandardized jellies are not provided for by the standard of identity, the Food and Drug Administration recognizes that articles that are acceptable to the consumer can be fabricated from mixtures of these foods. Therefore no objection will be taken to such mixtures provided they are informatively labeled in a truthful and non-misleading fashion.

In labeling nonstandardized jellies, the word “jelly” in the name should be preceded or followed by the name or names of the fruit or flavor source. All ingredients must be listed by specific common or usual name in *descending order of predominance by weight in accordance* with section 403(i)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and regulations *(21 CFR 101.4(a)(1))*.

*Material between asterisks is new or revised*

Issued: 10/1/80

Revised: 5/2005

Updated:  11/29/05

Draft Guidance for Industry: Submitting Form FDA 2541 (Food Canning Establishment Registration) and Forms FDA 2541d, FDA 2541e, FDA 2541f, and FDA 2541g (Food Process Filing Forms) to FDA in Electronic or Paper Format

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    1. Why FDA Is Issuing This Draft Guidance
    2. What Commercial Processors Should Do Until FDA Issues the Final Version of this Guidance
    3. What this Guidance Will Do
    4. What this Guidance Does Not Do
  2. Background
    1. Requirement for Registration
    2. Requirement for Process Filing
    3. Voluntary Registration and Process Filing
    4. Voluntary Process for FDA Evaluation of New Processing Methods or New Equipment
  3. Portals for Electronic Submissions
    1. FDA’s Industry Systems (FIS)
    2. FDA’s Unified Registration Listing Systems (FURLS)
    3. Relationship Between the Electronic Acidified Food/Low-Acid Canned Food Registration System and Food Facility Registration (FFR)
  4. Overview of Processes for Submission of Registration and Process Filing Forms
    1. Create an FDA Account, Register as a Food Facility, and Identify Your Facility as an Acidified/Low-Acid Food Processor
    2. Register as a Food Canning Establishment By Submitting Form FDA 2541
    3. FDA Receives Form FDA 2541
    4. Facility Contact Person Authorizes Individuals to Access the Electronic Acidified Food/Low-Acid Canned Food System for Your Food Canning Establishment (Optional)
    5. Submit Process Filing Forms
  5. Changes to AF/LACF Registration Information
    1. Changing the Facility Contact Person
    2. Changing the Mailing Address for the Food Canning Establishment
    3. Changing the Telephone Number and Email Address for the Facility Contact Person
    4. Adding or Deleting Product Information
    5. Cancelling Registration
    6. Relocating Your Commercial Processing Operations
  6. How to Contact FDA or Obtain Help
  7. References
  8. Appendices

Maine Gardener: It’s no blueberry, but Aronia has endearing, if sour, charms

Portland Press Herald:

While Aronia, or chokeberry, is being promoted as a potential new crop for farmers and home gardeners in New England, it isn’t likely to replace the blueberry.

Aronia melanocarpa, or black chokecherries, are less sour than the red and purple.

Bumblebees love the flowers of Aronia, which is native to the eastern U.S. Aronia’s berries are sour raw, but are good in juices and other processed forms.

Lois Berg Stack, an ornamental horticulture specialist with the University of Maine Cooperative Extension at Orono, discussed the shrub at New England Grows in Boston earlier this month.  Full Article